Corpus Resources & DocumentationJørg Asmussen @ DSL

Inflected word forms

Word list of lemmas and their inflected forms with information on parts of speech and inflection.

This word list is intended for expert users.

General

The word list contains more than 80.000 lemmas, each lemma form has been supplied with information on all possible inflectional forms.

The lemmas originate from various older lexical sources from around 1990, and their inflectional forms have been automatically derived from the morphological information given in these sources and automatically supplemented in a number of cases. The selection is very wide, and a number of words are hardly relevant (e.g. proper nouns, nonce formations). The majority, however, are words also included in The Danish Dictionary (DDO). In addition, DDO also includes other, particularly newer words that are not in the list.

Note: The forms in the list have not been checked for correctness and compliance with the norm distributed by The Danish Language Council.

The composition of the list

Structure

The structure of the list is shown the following excerpt showing one lemma:

*
certifikat
S
2 certifikat
4 certifikats
8 certifikatet
16 certifikatets
32 certifikater
64 certifikaters
128 certifikaterne
256 certifikaternes

A new lemma on the list is always preceded by an asterisk * on a separate line. In the following line the lemma appears in its base or lemma form.

Part of Speech

In line 3 the part of speech is given as a one character abbreviation:

Abbr. POS
S noun
A adjective
V verb
D adverb
F abbreviation
K conjunction
L onomatopoeic word
O pronoun
P proper noun
I prefix
Æ preposition
T numeral
U interjection
X unidentified

Notes

Class X comprises words that could not be automatically identified. In particular it contains words which usually occur exclusively in fixed expressions with other words, e.g. badut (springe badut), bero (stille i bero), besøgelsestid (kende sin besøgelsestid) or multi word units appearing as single word, e.g. au pair.

In addition to prefixes proper, e.g. di-, eks-, fore-, class I also comprises the first elements of compounds, e.g. forenings-, forhandlings-, formue-.

Class P comprises proper nouns, but as it is almost impossible to apply usable selection criteria discerning important from unimportant within the class, it is characterised by a degree of coincidence.

Class F reflects primarily an orthographic phenomenon. For all abbreviations, a genitive form with apostrophe -s has been generated although many of these seem questionable.

The line containing part of speech is followed by the different inflectional forms which the word may take. The forms are always given in lower case letters even if capital letters are used in the normally correct orthographic representation. Hyphens, full stops (in abbreviations) and spaces (a la), if any, are also omitted. The omitted information can, however always be derived from the base form.

Information on inflectional forms

Each inflectional form in the list is preceded by a number (separated from the word by a tab) indicating which inflectional forms of the lemma the form can be assigned to.

The numbers denote a certain bit pattern according to the following scheme:

position 0 1 2 3  4  5  6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13    14    15
value    1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 32768

If the number is, say, 3136, then it is composed of 64 + 1024 + 2048 from the scheme above. Thus the bits in position 6, 10 and 11 are set. Different inflectional categories are attached to each position depending on part of speech.

The following tables show the forms attached to the individual positions in the bit pattern for relevant part of speech.

Adjectives

1: singular-common gender
2: singular-common gender-genitive (nominal use)
3: singular-neuter
4: singular-neuter-genitive
5: plural/definite
6: plural/definite-genitive (nominal use)
7: comparative/adverb
8: comparative-genitive (nominal use)
9: superlative-singular/adverb
10: superlative-plural/definite
11: superlative-plural/definite-genitive (nominal use)
12: fossilized, e.g. (til) fulde, (du) godeste
13: adverb

Adverbs

1: positive
2: comparative
3: superlative

Proper nouns

1: singular
2: singular-genitive

Common nouns

1: singular-indefinite
2: singular-indefinite-genitive
3: singular-definite
4: singular-definite-genitive
5: plural-indefinite
6: plural-indefinite-genitive
7: plural-definite
8: plural-definite-genitive
9: fossilized, e.g. (på) tide

Verbs

1: infinitive-active
2: present-active
3: infinitive-passive
4: present-passive
5: preterite-active
6: preterite-passive
7: present participle/adverb
8: present participle-genitive
9: perfect participle-neuter/adverb
10: perfect participle-neuter-genitive
11: perfect participle-common gender
12: perfect participle-common gender-genitive
13: perfect participle-plural/definite
14: perfect participle-plural/definite-genitive
15: imperative

Pronouns

Nominal
 1: nominative 2: oblique3: genitive
interrogative/relative hvadhvad 
interrogative/relative hvemhvemhvis
indefinite manenens
personaljegmig 
personaldedemderes
personalviosvores
personalIjer/ederjeres/eders
personaldendendens
personalhunhendehendes
personaldetdetdets
personalDeDemDeres
personalhanham/hannemhans
personaldudig 
personalhinandenhinandens 
reciprocalhverandrehverandres 
reflexivesig  
Adjectival
 4: sg-comm.gender5: sg-c.g.-gen6: sg-neut7: sg-neut-gen8: pl9: pl-gen
demden (her/der)&nbspdet (her/der) de (her/der) 
demdennedennesdettedettesdissedisses
demsådan ensådan enssådan etsådan etssådan nogen/noglesådan nogens/nogles
demhinhinshinthintshinehines
demsådansådanssådantsådantssådannesådannes
i/rhvad for en hvad for et hvad for nogen/nogle 
i/rhvilkenhvilkenshvilkethvilketshvilkehvilkes
indingeningensintetintetsingeningens
indandenandensandetandetsandreandres
indnogennogensnogetnogetsnogen/noglenogens/nogles
indenensetets  
indmangenmangensmangtmangtsmangemanges
indal alt allealles
indhverhvershverthverts  
ind  &nsbp; somme 
indenhverenhversethvertethverts&nnsp; 
possin sit sinesines
posjer jert jere 
posdin dit  dinedines
posvor vort vore 
posmin mit minemines

In many cases highly unlikely or unattested (but paradigmatically possible) forms appear. For example, for all verbs the imperative is given, yielding the imperative form produc from the verb produce even if it is hardly likely ever to occur.

Many adjectives have (synthetic) comparative forms which seem quite meaningless, e.g. the comparative of storslået given as storslåedere. For numerals the inflectional category ‘ordinality’ should have been given, but it is not. Moreover, a number of errors may occur due to automatic overgeneration of inflectional forms.

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